Amnesty interviewed 231 migrants – 132 working at the stadium and 99 on green spaces in the surrounding Aspire sports complex.
It said staff of one labour supply company used the threat of penalties to exact work from some migrants such as withholding pay, handing workers over to the police or stopping them from leaving Qatar.
This amounted to forced labour under international law, Amnesty said.
The Qatari government said its Ministry of Administrative Development, Labour and Social Affairs would investigate the contractors named in the report.
But Amnesty said every migrant it had interviewed had reported abuses of one kind or another, including being:
required to pay fees of up to $4,300 to recruiters in their home country to get a job in Qatar, deceived over the type of work and the pay on offer, which was sometimes half as much as they were promised and threatened for complaining about their conditions, Naija and Bet